Nederlands Holocaust in Europe Persecution


In nazi Germany there was no place for dissidents. Nazi policy was to do away with democratic freedom, other political parties, trade unions, and free press, as well as Jews. The persecution and exclusion of Jews from society began with a boycott against Jewish stores. Several unplanned pogroms against Jews followed and a numerus clausus for Jewish students and several professions were issued. The Nuremberg laws of September 1935 prohibited Aryans from marrying non-Aryans. Jews lost their German citizenship. The nazis portrayed Germany's struggle against 'the international Judaism' as a confrontation with the Bolshevism - ‘the instrument of the Jews'.  The Reichspogromnacht of November 1938, also known as the Kristallnacht, was the first massive and systematic pogrom against Jews, synagogues, and Jewish property. Jewish children were expelled from schools; Jewish stores and businesses were expropriated. Jews were excluded from theatres, cinemas, and sports clubs. In many German cities they were prohibited from entering Aryan areas. A big letter ‘J' was stamped in the passports of German Jews. Hundreds of thousands of German Jews fled Germany before the war started.

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  1. The SA (storm troopers) called for a boycott on all Jewish stores. Berlin, 1933
    NIOD Collection, Amsterdam
  2. Smashed shop-windows after Kristallnacht, 1938
    NIOD Collection, Amsterdam
  3. A burning synagogue on Oranienburgerstraat in Berlin, 1938
    NIOD Collection, Amsterdam
  4. Cover of the brochure ‘The Jews in the Netherlands’ that Dutch people received by mail in 1940; they enter our countries like vagabonds and multiply.
  5. The Nuremberg race laws in a diagram.
    Only people with four German grandparents (four white circles) had pure German blood. Jews are people with three or four Jewish ancestors; the remaining people are of 'mixed blood'.
    NIOD Collection, Amsterdam
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after 1945
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