Nederlands Holocaust in Europe Persecution

National Socialism

When Hitler and his National Socialist party came into power in January 1933, a period of persecution began for the German Jews (approximately 1% of the population). This persecution would develop into an effort to eliminate all the Jews in almost all of Europe. To a large extent, Hitler and the Nazis succeeded in executing this plan. During the Second World War six million European Jews were systematically murdered. The ideology of the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers' Party) was a combination of conservative and radical ideas. Nationalism was the most important idea. The National Socialist propaganda's main focus was Germany and the German people, a mythical unit, connected through blood ties. From the 1920s, the party's radical and aggressive character won over many soldiers who were frustrated by Germany's defeat in the First World War (1914-1918). Nazi propaganda was characterised by fierce opposition to communism, internationally oriented socialism, liberalism, and parliamentary democracy.
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  1. The Nazis often humiliated Jews and political opponents. Here they had to clean a wall. Photo from the beginning of the Nazi period.
    NIOD Collection, Amsterdam
  2. Reichsparteitag, Nuremberg, 10-16 December 1935. The banner says ‘Germany wake up’.
    NIOD Collection, Amsterdam
  3. NSDAP poster. The German eagle watching over a happy and content German family. ‘If you need help and advice, contact your local party department.’
    NIOD Collection, Amsterdam
  4. Hitler supporters exhibiting the Hitler salute: the right arm extended forward and the palm of the hand slanted upwards. Usually the Hitler salute was accompanied with the words ‘Sieg Heil’ or ‘Heil Hitler’. Nazi Germany copied the Hitler salute from Italian fascism.
    NIOD Collection, Amsterdam
  5. The Eeuwige Jood (The Eternal Jew), an anti-Semitic propaganda movie that the Nazis started to broadcast throughout Europe in October 1941.
    NIOD Collection, Amsterdam
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national socialism
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